Sorghum Research Paper

For more details, read the article in Hudson Alpha Institute for Biotechnology website or download the open access paper in BMC Genomics.Unraveling the complexity underpinning nitrogen (N) use efficiency (NUE) can be physiologically approached via examining grain N sources and N internal efficiency (NIE) (yield to plant N content ratio). Sorghum presents a good nutritional value, with an overall grain composition of 70–80% carbohydrate, 2–5% fat, 1–3% fiber, and 1–2% ash. Differential responses to defoliation of grain sorghum yield components and yield related traits.

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The E factor (e.g., water and temperature) exerts a large influence; thus, endpoint sorghum productivity may be considered the outcome of a complex G × E × M interaction. Utilization of previously accumulated and concurrently absorbed nitrogen during reproductive growth in maize.

From a plant nutrition perspective, nitrogen (N) is the main nutrient influencing plant growth, aboveground biomass, and yield (Roy and Wright, 1973; Kamoshita et al., 1998; Borrell and Hammer, 2000; Wortmann et al., 2007; van Oosterom et al., 2010; Kaizzi et al., 2012; Mahama et al., 2014).

The final tiller number is dependent on the genotype, temperature, and nutrient resources. Dry matter accumulation patterns, yield, and N content of grain.

Final plant size as related to the aboveground portion is dependent on the plant response to photoperiod sensitivity and growing conditions; while the belowground section is composed by extensive fibrous root systems. doi: 10.2135/cropsci20 Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Roy, R.

The main objective of this original research paper is to document and understand sorghum NUE and physiological mechanisms related to grain N dynamics.

The study of different grain N sources, herein defined as the reproductive-stage shoot N remobilization (Remobilized N), reproductive-stage whole-plant N content (Reproductive N), and vegetative-stage whole-plant N content (Vegetative N), was pursued with the goal of synthesizing scientific literature for sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] crop. For modern sorghum hybrids, N application improved yields via modification of aboveground biomass, seed number, and grain HI (Mahama et al., 2014). Improvement of NUE (yield to available N ratio) can be understood via dissecting NUE into two components: N recovery efficiency (NRE, plant N uptake to soil N supply) and (NIE, yield to plant N uptake ratio) (Ciampitti and Vyn, 2012). A detailed literature review was performed and summarized on sorghum NUE (13 studies; 250 means) with three Eras, defined by the year of the study, named as Old Era (1965–1980); Transient Era (1981–2000); and New Era (2001–2014). Water supply: yield relationships developed for study of water management. The most remarkable outcomes from this synthesis were: (1) overall historical (1965–2014) cumulative yield gain was ); (2) NIE did not change across the same time period; (3) grain N concentration (grain %N) accounted for a large proportion (63%) of the variation in NIE; (4) NIE increased as grain %N diminished, regardless of the Eras; (5) Remobilized N was strongly () relationship, suggesting complex regulation processes governing N forces. Moench) improvement has been related to targeted modifications in genotype (G component) and management practices (M component), such as (a) fertilization rates, (b) irrigation, and (c) tillage practices (Eghball and Power, 1995; Duvick, 1999; Assefa and Staggenborg, 2010). A long-term study conducted in Texas (1939–1997) documented yield improvements were mainly related to the introduction of new sorghum hybrids, water conditions at planting, better weed (herbicide) control and conservation practices such as zero tillage (Unger and Baumhardt, 1999). doi: 10.2134/agronj1965.00021962005700060015x Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Stone, L. Overall, sorghum yield improvement seemed to be primarily achieved by gains under environmental stress and low yielding environments rather than by modifications or improvements on maximum yield potential (Assefa and Staggenborg, 2010). doi: 10.2134/agronj1973.00021962006500050009x Cross Ref Full Text | Google Scholar Stickler, F. Sorghum is a C4 (Kranz leaf anatomy) erect plant constituted from a main stem, leaf canopy, head, and tiller organs. Sorghum growth and nutrient uptake in relation to soil fertility: I. Improvements in NUE are subjected to the interplay between N supply (N from non-reproductive organs) and grain N demand, sink- (driven by grain number) and source-modulated (via restriction of grain N demand). For the last six decades, US sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.

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