Literature Review On Corporate Social Responsibility

Therefore, three important marketing journals were also included (.In our selection of papers, we reviewed definitions of the key term ‘corporate social responsibility’ and of terms that resemble CSR, such as ‘corporate social performance’, ‘corporate citizenship’ and ‘corporate philanthropy’.

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There are also many different definitions of CSR as there are many different ways to think about what CSR includes and what it embraces (Carroll and Shabana, 2010).

The current study uses Carroll and Shabana’s (2010) four categories of CSR as this definition has been used successfully for research purposes for over 25 years.

CSR involves various fields (e.g., marketing, human resource management and stakeholder management) that are difficult to categorise without the use of this approach.

Finally, content analysis has been previously used successfully to accumulate knowledge and conduct literature reviews in management and organisation studies (Duriau et al., 2007; Cascio and Aguinis, 2008; Laplume et al., 2008, Seuring and Gold, 2012).

A further source of ambiguity is embedded in the link between CSP and CFP.

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It is still unclear whether good CSP leads to growth in revenues or whether firms with a better CFP possess the capabilities to conduct more CSR activities.

These include studies that suggest that CSR activities provide an insurancelike protection when negative events occur (Godfrey et al., 2009); that CSR activities influence not only the growth of sales, but also employment (Carmeli, 2005) and investment (Sen et al., 2006); and that firms with higher CSR ratings may have a sustainable competitive advantage in terms of human capital because they attract more and better potential employees than firms with lower CSR ratings (Hunt et al., 1989; Turban and Greening, 1997; Carmeli, 2005).

Consequently, in order to pursue sustainable development and achieve a favourable reputation in a competitive market, an increasing number of companies now put CSR at centre stage when devising strategy and publish CSR disclosures and reports.

There has been an increasing use of content analysis as a rigorous way of exploring many important but difficultto- study issues (Duriau et al., 2007).

Early definitions emphasise the quantitative approach by stating that ‘content analysis is a research technique for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of communication’ (Bereson, 19).

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