John Dewey Critical Thinking

John Dewey Critical Thinking-37
With this view as his starting point, Dewey developed a broad body of work encompassing virtually all of the main areas of philosophical concern in his day. The theory of natural selection continued to have a life-long impact upon Dewey's thought, suggesting the barrenness of static models of nature, and the importance of focusing on the interaction between the human organism and its environment when considering questions of psychology and the theory of knowledge. Torrey, a learned scholar with broader philosophical interests and sympathies, was later accounted by Dewey himself as "decisive" to his philosophical development.He also wrote extensively on social issues in such popular publications as the John Dewey was born on October 20, 1859, the third of four sons born to Archibald Sprague Dewey and Lucina Artemesia Rich of Burlington, Vermont. The formal teaching in philosophy at the University of Vermont was confined for the most part to the school of Scottish realism, a school of thought that Dewey soon rejected, but his close contact both before and after graduation with his teacher of philosophy, H. After graduation in 1879, Dewey taught high school for two years, during which the idea of pursuing a career in philosophy took hold.

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During his first decade at Columbia Dewey wrote a great number of articles in the theory of knowledge and metaphysics, many of which were published in two important books: (1916), perhaps his most important work in the field.

During his years at Columbia Dewey's reputation grew not only as a leading philosopher and educational theorist, but also in the public mind as an important commentator on contemporary issues, the latter due to his frequent contributions to popular magazines such as as well as his ongoing political involvement in a variety of causes, such as women's suffrage and the unionization of teachers.

While at Michigan Dewey wrote his first two books: explored the synthesis between this idealism and experimental science that Dewey was then attempting to effect.

At Michigan Dewey also met one of his important philosophical collaborators, James Hayden Tufts, with whom he would later author (1908; revised ed. In 1894, Dewey followed Tufts to the recently founded University of Chicago.

The confluence of these viewpoints propelled Dewey's early thought, and established the general tenor of his ideas throughout his philosophical career.

Upon obtaining his doctorate in 1884, Dewey accepted a teaching post at the University of Michigan, a post he was to hold for ten years, with the exception of a year at the University of Minnesota in 1888.For one, Hegelian idealism was not conducive to accommodating the methodologies and results of experimental science which he accepted and admired.Dewey himself had attempted to effect such an accommodation between experimental psychology and idealism in his early (1891), written from a more thoroughgoing naturalistic stance, suggested the superfluity of idealist principles in the treatment of the subject.The resulting view makes a mystery of the relevance of thought to the world: if thought constitutes a domain that stands apart from the world, how can its accuracy as an account of the world ever be established?For Dewey a new model, rejecting traditional presumptions, was wanting, a model that Dewey endeavored to develop and refine throughout his years of writing and reflection.It was during his years at Chicago that Dewey's early idealism gave way to an empirically based theory of knowledge that was in concert with the then developing American school of thought known as pragmatism.This change in view finally coalesced into a series of four essays entitled collectively "Thought and its Subject-Matter," which was published along with a number of other essays by Dewey's colleagues and students at Chicago under the title (1903).The eldest sibling died in infancy, but the three surviving brothers attended the public school and the University of Vermont in Burlington with John. With this nascent ambition in mind, he sent a philosophical essay to W. Harris, then editor of the and the most prominent of the St. Harris's acceptance of the essay gave Dewey the confirmation he needed of his promise as a philosopher.While at the University of Vermont, Dewey was exposed to evolutionary theory through the teaching of G. With this encouragement he traveled to Baltimore to enroll as a graduate student at Johns Hopkins University.But during the succeeding decade Dewey gradually came to reject this solution as confused and inadequate.A number of influences have bearing on Dewey's change of view.


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