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In the text of your paper, footnote numbers should be superscripted and should follow any punctuation (except a dash).Also include a Footnotes section at the end of your paper.
If not, you should generally choose footnotes, which are easier to read.
Endnotes force readers to flip to the back to check every citation.
This guide attempts to give definitive examples of how to reference different materials using footnote referencing here at the University of Hull.
If you prefer, a pdf version of this information can be downloaded here: This is the standardised referencing system to be used by all departments, faculties and schools at the University of Hull who ask their students to use a footnotes referencing system (with the exception of Law who use the standard OSCOLA system). We also recommend that all students learn how to use bibliographic software (End Note or Refworks) over the course of their studies to make their referencing more efficient.
You must provide information about author, title, and date of the document you are using, as follows: T. Example: Tobias, "Canada's Subjugation of the Plains Cree," 226. It should list the relevant sources used in the research for the paper.
This list should be arranged alphabetically by the surname of the author. [The information given in a footnote includes the author, the title, the place of publication, the publisher, the date of publication and the page or pages on which the quotation or information is found.] , Vol. For more information about how to cite electronic information see Xia Li and Nancy Crane, time any book or article is mentioned in a footnote, all the information requested above must be provided. can be used by itself, if you are referring to the same page as the previous footnote does, or it can be combined with a page number or numbers. 12, 599 In citing material read on the Internet, it is not sufficient to indicate the website alone. After that, however, there are shortcuts which should be used: (a) Several quotations in sequence from the same book: The abbreviation to be used is "Ibid.," a Latin word meaning "in the same place." (Notice that Ibid. Example: , is made by using the author's last name (but not the first name or initials unless another author of the same surname has been cited), the title--in shortened form, if desired--and the page number. On the other hand, choose endnotes when your footnotes are so long or numerous that they take up too much space on the page, making your report unattractive and difficult to read.Also, endnotes better accommodate tables, quoted poetry, and other matter that requires special typography.""Readers of academic and scholarly books usually prefer footnotes to endnotes because the former allows them to skim the notes without losing their place in the text.Place endnote numbers within the text in superscript type (small typeset above the line).In the notes section, use the same number to identify the endnote with the number in the text."(Robbins, Lara M.An "endnote" is a reference, explanation, or comment placed at the end of an article, research paper, chapter, or book.Like footnotes (which are used in this article), endnotes serve two main purposes in a research paper: (1) They acknowledge the source of a quotation, paraphrase, or summary; and (2) They provide explanatory comments that would interrupt the flow of the main text."Your department may specify whether you should use footnotes or endnotes, especially for a thesis or dissertation.Murray, Card 12F, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press.20.Throughout this book, I include quotations from people who have been in my studies or classes, from text on the Internet, or even from conversations or e-mails from friends or family members.