(Farrelly et al., 2013) Recently, global leaders committed to keep the overall temperature rise of the planet to under 2C at the COP21 in Paris promising to mitigate climate change by moving toward a carbon free future.
It is clear that in order to tackle the challenge many approaches have to be implemented together such as “energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, energy conservation as well as carbon capture and sequestration.” (Litynski et al., 2006) Carbon sequestration strategies can be a clear path in mitigating climate change as well as neutralizing the excess CO that have been studied and are currently being used in various pilot projects further increasing the incentive to study this field.
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies have been widely studied as a viable method to reduce carbon emissions.
This paper portrays a holistic overview of the physical methods as well as the biological methods of carbon sequestration in order to transition towards a net carbon neutral economy.
(Leung et al., 2014) It was found that the most mature and viable technologies for carbon capture was post combustion because it can be retrofitted in older power plants.
(Leung et al., 2014) Adsorption was found the best technology to separate the carbon because it is mature, simple and relatively low cost.(Aaron et al., 2005) Lastly, depleted oil and gas reservoirs are the most common geological formations for carbon storage.(Leung et al., 2014) From the biological processes discussed, microalgae was the most promising due to their fast growth and high photosynthetic activity.Figure 1 gives an overview of the advantages and disadvantages of each of the technologies and the area in which they are applied to.Pre-combustion capture normally occurs for coal or natural gas, where the fuel is pre treated in order release the minimal amount of carbon dioxide.(Singh et al., 2013) There are many limitations for many of the technologies specifically lack of funding and monetary incentive to reduce carbon dioxide emissions as well as the maturity of the research.C in 2013 (Farrelly et al., 2013)(Leung et al., 2014) This is detrimental to the environment as it leads to the melting of ice caps, increased sea level rise and extreme weather conditions.It can be reformed to syngas that contains both carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas using the reaction below.(Leung et al., 2014) CHfrom the syngas can be used as clean energy or in other applications. Shows the pre-combustion process in detail where the coal and the natural gas are turned to syngas through gasification and the hydrogen gas is then used in power plants as a form of renewable energy.(Farrelly et al., 2013) Furthermore a release of carbon through decaying biomass at 60 Gt C/year gives a net sequestration amount of carbon at 3 Gt C/year in soils.(Farrelly et al., 2013) Similarly in oceans there is a net 2 Gt C/year of carbon sequestration from the absorption of photosynthetic organisms and release by decay and respiration.